“The reason why metacognition is so important in education is that if the student reliable to understand their own working minds, they have the ability to transform their mental processes through planning, goal-setting, reflecting, being self-critical, self- monitoring, self-assessing, and self-regulating.”

-Thomas Armstrong in Education Week Teacher


Since I am new to this course, EDS 113- Principles and Methods of Assessment, I went through our lectures and came across with the word METACOGNITION and help myself to find out what this word they say  “all teachers should know”, “thinking about thinking”, “ knowing what is knowing”, understanding one’s own understanding”. COMPLICATED!

The definition wasn’t easy to understand inspite of the feeling I wanted to know this term. I go through digging this word and came up with these few important information that I hope I can present it to you in the simplest way even Mr. World Wide Web made it hard for me.



noun: metacognition; noun: meta-cognition


  1. awareness and understanding of one’s own thought processes.[]
  1. knowledge of person variables refers to general knowledge about how human beings learn and process information, as well as individual knowledge of one’s own learning processes. []
  2. KNOWING HOW TO LEARN, and knowing which strategies work best, are valuable skills that differentiate expert learners from novice learners. Metacognition, or awareness of the process of learning,is a critical ingredient to successful learning.[



The effectiveness of learning, according to the studies, that the power of metacognition for increasing student knowledge and achievement has been amazing for several decades. And we all know that it is not teachers alone or students alone themselves who are responsible for effective learning. It is a partnership between teacher and students.  Self study (using text books, exercises, tape and video recorders, etc.) and self-access (including  their own interest and needs) with the teacher’s formative and summative assessments while they are studying are also of good help in enriching one’s mind. But its not all…Why metacognition is so talked-about? Though it cannot be define easily, but commonly, it is define as  “thinking about thinking.” And it means like this… It  involves thinking about one’s own thinking process such as study skills, memory capabilities, and the ability to monitor own learning. This concept needs to be explicitly taught along with content instruction.


There are several skills necessary to develop metacognition. These are taking conscious control of learning, planning and selecting strategies (which I also listed down below), monitoring the progress of learning, correcting errors, analyzing the effectiveness of learning strategies ( which work best for you) and changing behaviors and strategies when necessary.


Metacognitive Strategies for Successful Learning ( some wrote it as THINK, ACT and REFLECT)


  • Consciously identify what you already know
  • Define the learning goal
  • Consider your personal resources (e.g. textbooks, access to the library, access to a computer work station or a quiet study area)
  • Consider the task requirements (essay test, multiple choice, etc.)
  • Determine how your performance will be evaluated
  • Consider your motivation level
  • Determine your level of anxiety


  • Estimate the time required to complete the task
  • Plan study time into your schedule and set priorities
  • Make a checklist of what needs to happen when ( everyday I do this )
  • Organize materials
  • Take the necessary steps to learn by using strategies like outlining, mnemonics, diagramming, etc.

Monitoring and Reflection:

  • Reflect on the learning process, keeping track of what works and what doesn’t work for you
  • Monitor your own learning by questioning and self-testing
  • Provide your own feedback
  • Keep concentration and motivation high



To Summarize:
So, I thought only teachers should know what is metacognition. Why not? Because it plays an important role in all learning and life experiences. Beyond academic learning, when students gain awareness of their own mental states, they begin to answer important question and through these reflections, they also begin to understand other people’s perspectives..and they gain confidence and become more independent as learners. Independence leads to ownership as student’s realize they can pursue their own intellectual needs and discover a world of information at their fingertips while the task of educators is to acknowledge, cultivate, exploit and enhance the metacognitive capabilities of all learners.


Let us all try to apply  this THINKING ABOUT THINKING in our studies and in our life 😊 and see the power by ourselves.


Happy learning!






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